Sunday, July 12, 2020

An Overview of Paper Sale

An Overview of Paper SalePaper Sale is a company that specializes in paper marketing. I haven't researched the company, but based on what I have read online, I'd say it has a good reputation with customers and a solid track record.The paper that they use in their marketing campaigns is recycled, environmentally friendly, and comes from sustainable sources. It's much more than just green, too; they've made so many great resources available for you.One of the big reasons why this type of marketing is so popular is because of the lack of waste associated with the material used in advertising. Because the waste isn't traditional marketing waste, it can be recycled in a lot of ways. This helps to lower the carbon footprint of the company's bottom line as well.This is why the company has a partner who makes it possible for them to purchase the products from their companies' suppliers and then send them back out into the world as waste. The materials that they buy will be of better quality than what they could have purchased from outside sources. That's money that they would have otherwise had to pay out to dispose of the materials.Their business is based on providing great resources for other companies to use to promote their businesses. They are interested in building long-term relationships with their clients as well, so they want to provide the best resources possible to help your company get your message out there.Paper Sale knows that if you are going to get out there and promote your business in the world, you need an online presence. You need to have a presence online, and if you don't have a presence online, it's hard to gain the attention of a lot of potential customers. Having a presence online means you can be found by people who are searching for you.That's why they strive to give businesses the tools they need to get their own online presence. They make sure that everything you need is in one place, including videos, photos, and press releases.At the end of the day, Paper Sale continues to go a long way toward helping other businesses create better connections and make the most of the internet. They have a website that you can visit and learn more about the company, and they've also created some great marketing tools that are featured online. If you need a company to help you promote your business online, they might be the right choice for you.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

The Works Of Jozef Israels ( 1824-1911 ) And Vincent Van Gogh

The relationship between Impressionism and Expressionism can be considered by examining the works of Jozef Israels (1824-1911) and Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890). These coexisting and overlapping artist’s lives and compositions, display the evolution and transition of artistic styles in the second half of the nineteenth century. The impressionist movement began in the 1870’s by a group of artists rejected and harshly criticized by the established art world and its critics in authority, particularly the Academie des Beaux-Arts. Several common characteristics encompassed this radical new artistic style. Images rendered from the artist’s everyday world strayed away from historical, religious or mythological subjects. Natural landscapes were painted without idealization and used vibrant light colors, which at times were mixed directly on the canvas contrary to the traditional darker palettes of their predecessors. The technique using quick, spontaneous brushstrokes enabled the artist to capture fleeting moments of light without concern for well-defined lines of a meticulous finish. Compositions were unhampered by traditional rules allowing for experimentation often framing and cropping subjects in shocking ways. As discussed by Soltes, Joseph Israels was a genre painter and the preeminent impressionist of the Netherlands, inspired by â€Å"wonderful slices of middle class life, people at work and people at play, which he invested with the very impressionist style of loose and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Was It Really Just An Experiment.. Nathaniel Hawthorne

Was It Really Just an Experiment? Nathaniel Hawthorne once said, â€Å"The Devil himself gets into my inkstand.† This quote allows readers to begin to understand his unique writing. There are categories in literature called romantic and anti-romantic literacy. Hawthorne was a man that blended different types of writing styles into one. In one of his works, Hawthorne begins to bewildered the reader due to his mixing of styled prose, causing a controversy when placing him into a group.When trying to place Hawthorne into a particular literacy category such as romantic or anti-romantic, the reader crosses literary lines, creating a blurred picture rather than a clear one-sided style. After reading Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment, the reader†¦show more content†¦At first, it lay lightly on the surface of the fluid, appearing to imbibe none of its moisture. Soon, however, a singular change began to be visible.† Another characteristic of romantic writing was that al l of the characters used in Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment were of the common man mold. The beginning of the story described the characters as, â€Å"that very singular man, old Dr. Heidegger, once invited four venerable friends to meet him in his study. There were three white-bearded gentlemen, Mr. Medbourne, Colonel Killigrew, and Mr. Gascoigne, and a withered gentlewoman, whose name was the Widow of Wycherley.† The people were described as typical elderly members of a community, creating a picture of weak and weathered due to hard living. Although there was a lot of romantic evidence in this short story, Hawthorne also showed the use of anti-romantic literature. Using evilness, Hawthorne s writing helps lead readers into the anti-romantic era. We as readers, were told of a story in which a man tests his friends with water from the Fountain of Youth. The greediness of the â€Å"four venerable and melcahancy old creatures† makes the reader feel that evil is in e very common man;in fact, greed has been proven to show darkness within a soul. Within the story it said, â€Å"Give us more of this wondrous water! Cried them eagerly. â€Å"We are younger--but we are still too old! Quick-- give us more!† Their want leads theShow MoreRelatedThe Birthmark Analysis1198 Words   |  5 PagesThe Birthmark by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a dark romantic short story based in the nineteenth century. The short story highlights the relationship between Aylmer and Georgiana as well as the dynamics of the different personality types between the two. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses Aylmer as well as Georgiana an example of tragic flaws to further the conflict in the story. A tragic flaw is a literary device found within The Birthmark. â€Å"Tragic flaw is a literary device that can be defined as a trait in aRead MoreNathaniel Hawthorne: A Brief Biography1277 Words   |  6 Pages On July 4, 1804, an author by the name of Nathaniel Hawthorne was born (Meltzer). As Hawthorne grew, he began to develop a view of himself as â€Å"the obscurest man in American letters.† Through the use of popular themes such as isolation, guilt, and earthly imperfection, Hawthorne was able to involve much of his life and ancestral past in his work to answer his own political and religious wonders (â€Å"Nathaniel†). Hawthorne successfully â€Å"confronts reality rather than evading it† in many of his storiesRead MoreMika Hulley. English. February 6, 2017. . 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For him the birthmark becomes the symbol of Georgiana’s flawed humanity, which he tries to alternate. Throughout the story, we come across several observances of otherness rev olving around â€Å"The Birthmark†. AylmerRead MoreMistakes in Dr. Heideggers Experiment by Nathaniel Hawthorne866 Words   |  4 PagesIn his short story Dr. Heideggers Experiment, Nathaniel Hawthorne makes a point to grant all of the characters varying human vices to try and instill in the reader a lesson about learning from their mistakes. When the reader is first introduced to Dr. Heidegger and his guests, the author gives some background on all of the characters. It becomes clear that Mr. Medbourne is known for his love of money, Widow Wycherly for her pride, Colonel Killigrew for lusting after sinful pleasures, and Mr. GascoigneRead MoreThe Fire Side Poets from the Romantic Period of Literature Appreciate Nature586 Words   |  3 PagesThe Romantic period in American Literature dates from 1800-1860. It was a time where people were trying to find a distinctive voice. The Romantic period included letters, poems, essays, books, and art. Most of the authors focused on feelings, which is why its called the â€Å"Ro mantic† period. The authors can be put into four different groups, The fire side poets, The Transcendentalist, American Gothic, and The Early Romantics. The fire side authors had an appreciation for nature. Poems were readRead MoreGuilt vs. Innocence, Allegories, Puritanism in Nathaniel Hawthorne2423 Words   |  10 Pagesï » ¿Sabrina Bullock Professor Erin Whitford American Literature I (409) 18 August 2013 (SumII) Grade: 88 Guilt vs. Innocence, Allegories, Puritanism in Nathaniel Hawthorne Nathaniel Hawthorne was a nineteenth century American writer that was born in Massachusetts with a Puritan Heritage. â€Å"Born in Massachusetts on the Fourth of July, 1804, he was the descendant of Puritan worthies and the son of a ship’s captain who died at sea in 1808† (Gollin). 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Effective Business Communication for Intercultural Communication

Question: Discuss about the Effective Business Communication for Intercultural Communication. Answer: This essay is basically the self refection of my own communication skill. In this context, it can be said that over a period of time communication competency has become an important part of higher education as there is a change in the mentality of policymaker of education (Jones Slack, 2016). The primary goal of learning at the undergraduate level is to communicate effectively along with skills like problem-solving skills, critical thinking, and writing. Here, with an aim to analyse my own communication skill I have taken help from 5 different diagnostic tools. With the help of these tools I have gathered information about two basic communication issues which I need to improve. These are public speaking anxiety due to low proficiency in English language and not an active listener. This particular essay will tend to give information about different techniques which I can use with an aim to improve my assessed communication related issues. In order to examine effectiveness of my own communication skill, 5 different diagnostic tools have been used by me. The first tool is of willingness to listen diagnostic tool. This tool assesses the listening capability of an individual. Second tool is of Self Perceived Communication Competence. This tool basically measures the communication competency of people in number of situations (Takino, 2016). Furthermore, Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension is another diagnostic tool. This method measures the communication apprehension among speaker. With the use of given tool I can analyze my competency in public speaking. In addition to this, fourth diagnostic tool is of Non-Verbal Immediacy Scale Self Report. This tool is used to examine the behavior of one person towards other people. Last diagnostic tool which I have used is of Talkaholic. By using this tool I can get information that whether I am more talkative or less talkative in nature. I have applied all these given tools and number of things has been identified by me about my own communication skills. Here, with regard to Non-Verbal Immediacy Scale Self Report I have examined that my non verbal communication skill is very much effective (Haylett, 2016). This is because, while speaking with some other person I always use my hands and arm gestures. It is through this way only I can effectively communicate the things which I want to say to others. Furthermore, I have also found out that I never use dull and monotone voice while talking with the other people. Besides this, from the Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension tool it is examined that I have moderate Intercultural Communication Apprehension. Here, my score is 42 which can be considered as neutral in terms of Intercultural Communication Apprehension. Herein, I do not like to get involved in the group discussion with the people who belong to some other culture. Moreover, I do not feel comf ortable while speaking with the individual who belongs to some other culture. I always feel anxious while speaking in front of large public. This may be because I do not know English language very fluently. In todays environment English has become one of a most important language of communication in business as well as in general life. Hence, people who does not know English feels less confident and as a result of it they always have a fear of presenting themselves in front of public who belongs to different culture (Meyer Hunt, 2017). Besides this, with an aim to analyse the effectiveness of my own communication I have taken help from Self Perceived Communication Competence Scale tool. With regard to respective tool, I have found out that I do not feel comfortable in taking with large group of strangers. However, I feel very comfortable when I need to talk with the people who are my friends and apprentice. Furthermore, as per the Willingness to Diagnostic Tool my score is 56. As per the scale this is not so good result. This is because this score indicates that I am not at all a good listener. Here, I always listen to that person to whom I found out very much interesting. Thus, I do not listen person who give boring speeches. In this context, it can be said that a listener will be considered as effective if he/she listen each and every person speech actively. Hence, on the basis of analysis I have examined two basic communication issues which I need to improve with immediate effect. This is because if significant actions towards them are not taken then in this situation it will become very difficult to me with regard to get good job in todays competitive environment (Arens Jansen, 2016). The assessed communication issues are of not an active listener and public speaking anxiety due to low proficiency in English language. Furthermore, my recent professional interaction gives clear evidence that I should make improvement in the assessed communication issue. This is because if necessary action towards these issues will not being taken then it will tend to have effect on my personal and professional development in an effective way. Herein, I would like to give an example of what happened 9 months ago while I was working on the position of Business Development Executive in one of the manufacturing firm. Being in the development position I always had to travel from one place to another. Hence, due to my job I met with the people who belong to different culture. One day because of some business meeting I went to America where people first language is English. Being the only representative of my company I had to deliver the presentation of my firms product in front of different buyers. It was my first time when I was given chance to present myself in front of large audience. Here, as I do not understand Engl ish properly I felt very scared and less confident. As a result of it my company had lost very big business deal in America. Thus, at that time only I felt that I should improve my English with an aim to reduce my anxiety during public speaking. One more major incident had happened that made me realized that I should make improvement in my listening ability. During my college days I was doing a part time job in one of the fast food company. Here, my major work was to take orders from customers and communicate about the same to the chef. One day what happened that many customers came to the restaurant and as a result of it lots of noise was there in restaurant. Due to noise, I had taken some wrong order from the customers and because of that I had to listen a lot from my manager. Thus, from that point only I had taken oath that I will make improvement in my listening ability. This is because it is with the help of respective skill only I can be able to perform my work effectively and efficiently. With respect to competence, we all have strengths and weaknesses. Generally, we take efforts to work on our weaknesses which require considerable hard work. There are various steps of competence which should be assessed during daily life communication which is conscious and unconscious incompetence conscious and unconscious competence. As per Brenner (2017) even after learning and practicing effective communication skills, there can be unconscious incompetence which means a state where an individual is not aware of the fact that he is communicating in an incompetent way. After practicing and thorough knowledge of communication competence, it is easy to exhibit conscious competence. It is the state where the individual knows what to do and what should not be done. According to the view point of Raglio and (2016) with improvement and development in communication competence, an individual can reach to the state of conscious competence which means when an individual is aware that he is communicating correctly. At this stage, these experiences help an individual to communicate effectively in future interactions. An individual once reaches the stage of conscious competence does not stay there forever. It may happen that he reaches the stage of conscious competence while communicating with one person or in one situation that does not mean he will always exhibit the same stage. We enter into new communication regularly. Thus, a person stays in one stage of competence for a period till he reaches to the next stage. According to the view point of Carnegie (2017) whether you are speaking in public for the first time or second time or on regular basis, there are chances that you may face anxiety toward public speaking. There are various research conducted by scholars over a period of decades and found that anxiety is common among college students. This anxiety is called as communication apprehension and it appears even just thinking about communicating to some stranger or for public speaking. This behaviour is exhibited by around 15-20% of college students. The skill to handle anxiety may help a lot of students. Anxiety related to public speaking in individual shows his cognitive, physiological and psychological behaviour towards people according to Duck McMahan (2017). There is various research which is conducted over anxiety towards public speaking which mainly focuses on three things which are cognitive restructuring, systematic desensitization and skill training. Communication department is the only department which considers communication as an important factor. Communication can have the negative impact or it may motivate people. (German, K. M. and, 2016) studied that even if an individual is intelligent, motivated or prepared, anxiety may deviate him from his learning while public speaking. Anxiety is a common problem which is faced by many people even experts. Besides this, as per the view point of Komiya and (2017) people feel anxious during public speaking when they are not fluent in speaking in English. In this context, it has been examined by the scholars that English has become one of a most important business language. Herein, nowadays there are many people who know and understand English very well. However, people feel less confident when they are not aware about the language of business. The people of such kind do not perform well and furthermore they also face many problems during their promotions. In addition to this, the study of Homer, Deeprose Andrade (2016) defines that the foundation period for children development is early years which he spends in primary school. In these years, children develop language and cultural identity. It describes that developing English communication for those children for whom English is the second language is difficult. Communication is the greatest asset with a human being. Developing la nguage is a tool for communication. Language plays an important role in fitting in society. English communication for children is also important for their social development. Moreover, he describes that learning communication and language for toddler starts from family and home. The parents who are qualified and proficient in English will develop English communication in their children since early childhood and can monitor childs development in school. Parents from diverse linguistic and cultural background face challenge in monitoring their childs progress in English and providing an environment at home. Furthermore, as per the view point of Takino (2016) active listening is basically communication technique in which listener actively listen the words which is being said by some other person. However, according to Meyer Hunt (2017) active listening is the act of mindful hearing whereby one person perform the work in the manner as per communicated by some other person. Brenner (2017) has stated that people who listen very well are more productive than other who wont listen well. The thing as being specified by respective author is correct. This is because it has been seen that an individual who listen properly always gives its best to the organization. This is because, such type of people knew very well about the things which are being communicated by their manager. Thus, they tend to carry out their work accordingly. Hence, as a result of this positive effect of the same will be seen on firms sales and profits. In addition to this, HEAR model of active listening entails that people can become active listener if they always put themselves in the shoes of others. It is through this way only an individual can assess the condition of others. Thus, as a result of it they will try to make measure in terms of listening the words which is being speak by some other individual. Overall, it can be said that by making use of all these given techniques person can make significant improvement in the skill in which they are hindering (Jones Slack, 2016). Thus, through this way person can give their best services to the corporation in which they are going to work in future in an effective way. For the purpose to make improvement in my assessed communication issues, number of measures will be taken. In accordance with the given context, I have prepared action plan over the period of six months. Here, in the first six month period I will make improvement in my public speaking anxiety due to lack of fluency in English. In this regard, in the first month I will enroll myself in English Speaking classes. Herein, I will put my 100 % in terms of learning different grammatical concepts in an effectual way. In the 2 month with an aim to make further improvement in my English Speaking skill I will read number of novels and self help books. These all given things will help in improving my English speaking skills and thus reduces my anxiety of speaking in public. Furthermore, with an aim to gain the confidence of speaking in public I will make measures of interacting with the people who belongs to varied culture. Thus, it is through this type of activity only I will make improvement i n my assessed communication issue. Besides this, from the 4 month I will take action towards my active listening skill. In this context, I will read books on active listening which is being written by different famous authors. In the similar way, I will attain the training and development programs which are being arranged by famous companies upon active listening. This technique is effective because in case if I have any kind of doubt regarding the skill then in this condition I can ask from the trainer of companies. At last with an aim to enhance my hearing capability I will join yoga classes also. Here, the schedule and operations for proposed action plan is mentioned through Gantt chart. Gantt Chart 1st month 2nd month 3rd month 4th month 5th month 6th month Spoken English classes and learning grammar Reading self help book, novels and writing blogs etc Interacting with strangers Read book on active listening Training and development program Attain Yoga The best way to evaluate my given skill would be speaking English in front of huge people. Furthermore, I will also take feedback from my friends and family members regarding the improvement of given skills. Hence, it is by complying with these all type of activities only I will make improvement in the identified communication issues. References Books and Journal Arens, A. K., Jansen, M. (2016). Self-concepts in reading, writing, listening, and speaking: A multidimensional and hierarchical structure and its generalizability across native and foreign languages.Journal of Educational Psychology,108(5), pp.646. Brenner, A. M. (2017). Listening: an underlying competency in psychiatry education.Academic Psychiatry,41(3), pp.385-390. Carnegie, D. (2017).How to develop self-confidence and influence people by public speaking. Simon and Schuster. Duck, S., McMahan, D. T. (2017).Communication in Everyday Life: The Basic Course Edition with Public Speaking. SAGE Publications. German, K. M., and, (2016).Principles of public speaking. Routledge. Haylett, C. (2016). Use of Social Media for Teaching Online Courses and Enhancing Business Communication Skills at the University Level: Can This Really Be Done?.International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (IJOPCD),6(4), pp.71-85. Homer, S. R., Deeprose, C., Andrade, J. (2016). Negative mental imagery in public speaking anxiety: Forming cognitive resistance by taxing visuospatial working memory.Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry,50, pp. 77-82. Jones, M., Slack, R. (2016). Financial Reporting and Business Communication, Twentieth Annual Conference University of Bristol, Thursday 30 June Friday 1 July 2016: First Call for Papers.Accounting and Business Research,46(1), pp.118-119. Komiya,R. and (2017). Head Pose Estimation and Motion Analysis of Public Speaking Videos.International Journal of Software Innovation (IJSI),5(1), pp. 57-71. Meyer, K. R., Hunt, S. K. (2017). The lost art of lecturing: cultivating student listening and notetaking.Communication Education,66(2), pp.239-241. Raglio, A., and, (2016). Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.Brain imaging and behavior,10(1), pp. 182-186. Takino, M. (2016).Negotiating the challenges of using English in business communication: listening narratives of Japanese BELF users(Doctoral dissertation, University of Southampton).

Thursday, April 23, 2020

We must learn that to expect God to do everything while we do nothing is not faith but superstition Essay Example

We must learn that to expect God to do everything  while we do nothing is not faith but superstition Essay Before reading this essay one must recognise that out of Faith comes superstition, and out of superstition comes faith. Faith brings out hope, whereas Superstition brings about doubt.Evil, to both Christians and non-Christians, is that which is morally wrong or bad. It is usually someone or something that causes harm, pain, misery, and even death. Christians regard it as anything that goes against the word of God (The Bible). God is considered to be all knowing, all present, morally and spiritually perfect, and all-powerful.Therefore the idea that God is all-powerful and evil exists is to many people a contradiction. Now one must, when faced with this problem and assuming that both an all-powerful God and Evil exist, come up with an answer of educated demeanor. There are very many arguments towards the coexistence of Evil and an all-powerful God.Near the end of the 4th Century a monk, St. Augustine, after studying Neoplatonism came up with an idea towards answering this quandary. St. Augustine thought that maybe God did not create evil and that evil is the deficiency of good. Also that it is entirely possible for something good to be cankered by lesser evils such as that displayed in other things of freewill. i.e./ Humans avert from greater, more perfect things and choose minor, imperfect things. Finally St. Augustine explains that feasibly what looks evil up front may be seen to be good in the context of eternity.Another argument is that of Leibniz. He argues that Gods creation power was limited to words which were/are only logically possible and evil is a necessary logical part of the Best of all Possible Worlds. This basically means that evil and suffering could be fitting only because it models part of Gods Divine and Benevolent Plan. i.e. Person trips up, breaks leg and therefore has to go to hospital, while they are in hospital they are not present in their office and their office burns down; therefore them breaking their leg and going to hospital has sav ed them from being burnt alive in their office building.Another, although slightly simpler idea, is that of (for example) a girl puts her hand into a flame and burns it, but in doing so learns from her mistake and probably/hopefully wont do it again.The final argument that one can think of is that conceived in the Bible of FREEWILL. This simply states that God has given mankind the option to do whatever it wants. This is not saying that God has no control, God could step in at any time and put a stop to it. i.e. The Great Flood.In conclusion, a personal view would be that, there is no problem of a contradiction between God and Evil, there is no discrepancy,. Evil and an all-powerful God can exist at the same time. Christians have faith in God that although they could do anything with freewill, many choose to do good rather than evil: as said in Hebrews 11:1 Faith is the assurance of all things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. Modern day Christian faith also involves bel ief and the idea of the Supernatural action of God upon the human soul. Many people believe that reason and faith are far apart, and that one should choose to make the jump from reason to faith, (this is probably where the phrase Leap of Faith was coined.) Therefore another reason for the existence of an all-powerful, benevolent God and Evil is that of man having to have faith in lifes mishaps and faith in the rewards in the afterlife, to be good even though man is being tested by God.1I leave you with the idea that God works in mystical ways and man does not understand these ways because they are too complicated. Man is too fearful as to the true answer to God, which is the unknown, and Evil, which is where the superstition comes from, and so man is unable to grasp the true concept of why man sees evil or why there is evil. Superstition is only really used in times when there is personal stress, social stress or a crisis, this fits in with the concept of God and Evil, because man i s unsure of the answer. One has got to remember that one persons faith can be an others superstition, even within the same sect of religious belief. Therefore quotes in the Bible about Good and Evil are simply models and that they are not the true, whole answer. For, from Gods eternal perspective, everything can be good.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The Origins of Black History Month

The Origins of Black History Month The origins of Black History Month lay in early 20th-century historian Carter G. Woodsons desire to spotlight the accomplishments of African Americans. Mainstream historians left out African Americans from the narrative of American history up until the 1960s, and Woodson worked his entire career to correct this blinding oversight. His creation of Negro History Week in 1926 paved the way for the establishment of Black History Month in 1976. Negro History Week In 1915, Woodson helped found the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (today known as the Association for the Study of African American Life and History or ASALH). The idea for an organization devoted to black history came to Woodson as he was discussing the release of the racist film The Birth of a Nation. Discussing it with a group of African-American men at a YMCA in Chicago, Woodson convinced the group that African Americans needed an organization that would strive for a balanced history. The organization began publishing its flagship journal- The Journal of Negro History- in 1916, and ten years later, Woodson came up with the plan for a week of activities and commemorations devoted to African-American history. Woodson chose the week of February 7, 1926, for the first Negro History Week because it included the birthdays of both Abraham Lincoln (Feb. 12), celebrated for the Emancipation Proclamation that freed many American slaves, and abolitionist and former slave Frederick Douglass (Feb. 14). Woodson hoped that Negro History Week would encourage better relations between blacks and whites in the United States as well as inspire young African Americans to celebrate the accomplishments and contributions of their ancestors. In The Mis-Education of the Negro (1933), Woodson lamented, Of the hundreds of Negro high schools recently examined by an expert in the United States Bureau of Education only eighteen offer a course taking up the history of the Negro, and in most of the Negro colleges and universities where the Negro is thought of, the race is studied only as a problem or dismissed as of little consequence. Thanks to Negro History Week, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History began to receive requests for more accessible articles. As a result, in 1937 the organization began publishing the Negro History Bulletin aimed at African-American teachers who wanted to incorporate black history into their lessons. Black History Month African Americans quickly took up Negro History Week, and by the 1960s, at the height of the Civil Rights Movement, American educators, both white and black, were observing Negro History Week. At the same time, mainstream historians had begun to expand the American historical narrative to include African Americans (as well as women and other previously ignored groups). In 1976, as the US was celebrating its bicentennial, the ASALH expanded the traditional week-long celebration of African-American history to a month, and Black History Month was born. That same year, President Gerald Ford urged Americans to observe Black History Month, but it was President Carter who officially recognized Black History Month in 1978. With the federal governments blessing, Black History Month became a regular event in American schools. By the opening decade of the 21st century, however, some were questioning whether Black History Month should be continued, especially after the election of the nations first African-American president, Barack Obama, in 2008. For instance, in a 2009 article, commentator Byron Williams suggested that Black History Month had become trite, stale, and pedestrian rather than informative and thought provoking and served only to relegate the achievements of African Americans to an adjunct status in American history. But others continue to argue that the need for Black History Month has not disappeared. Historian Matthew C. Whitaker observed in 2009, Black History Month, therefore, will never be obsolete. It will always be in our best interest to pause and explore the meaning of freedom through the lived experiences of a people who forced America to be true to its creed and reaffirmed the American dream. Those who would eliminate Black History Month often miss the point. Woodson would no doubt be pleased by the expansion of the original Negro History Week. His goal in creating Negro History Week was to highlight African-American accomplishments alongside white American accomplishments. Woodson asserted in The Story of the Negro Retold (1935) that the book is not so much that of Negro history as it is universal history. For Woodson, Negro History Week was about teaching the contributions of all Americans and correcting a national historical narrative that he felt was little more than racist propaganda. Sources Carter G. Woodson: Father of Black History. Ebony. Vol. 59, no. 4 (February 2004): 20, 108-110.Dagbovie, Pero Gaglo. The early Black history movement, Carter G. Woodson, and Lorenzo Johnston Greene. Champaign, IL: The University of Illinois Press, 2007.Mayes, Keith A. Kwanzaa: Black Power and the Making of the African-American Holiday Tradition. New York: Taylor Francis, 2009.Whitaker, Matthew C. Black History Month Still Relevant for US. The Arizona Republic. 22 February 2009. Available online: p.htmlWoodson, Carter G. The Mis-Education of the Negro. 1933. Available online: The Story of the Negro Retold. The Associated Publishers, Inc., 1959.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Battle of Fort Henry in the Civil War

Battle of Fort Henry in the Civil War The Battle of Fort Henry took place February 6, 1862, during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and was one of the first actions of  Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grants campaign in Tennessee. With the start of the Civil War, Kentucky declared neutrality and stated it would align against the first side to violate its territory. This occurred on September 3, 1861, when Confederate Major General Leonidas Polk directed troops under Brigadier General Gideon J. Pillow to occupy Columbus, KY on the Mississippi River. Responding to the Confederate incursion, Grant took the initiative and dispatched Union troops to secure Paducah, KY at the mouth of the Tennessee River two days later.   A Wide Front As events were unfolding in Kentucky, General Albert Sidney Johnston received orders on September 10 to assume command of all Confederate forces in the west. This required him to defend a line extending from the Appalachian Mountains west to the frontier. Lacking sufficient troops to hold the entirety of this distance, Johnston was compelled to disperse his men into smaller armies and attempt to defend those areas through which Union troops were likely to advance. This cordon defense saw him order Brigadier General Felix Zollicoffer to hold the area around the Cumberland Gap in the east with 4,000 men while in the west, Major General Sterling Price defended Missouri with 10,000 men. The center of the line was held by Polks large command which, due to Kentuckys neutrality earlier in the year, was based closer to the Mississippi. To the north, an additional 4,000 men led by Brigadier General Simon B. Buckner held Bowling Green, KY. To further protect central Tennessee, construction of two forts had commenced earlier in 1861. These were Forts Henry and Donelson which guarded the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers respectively. The locations for the forts were determined by Brigadier General Daniel S. Donelson and while the placement for the fort bearing his name was sound, his choice for Fort Henry left much to be desired. Construction of Fort Henry An area of low, swampy ground, the location of Fort Henry provided a clear field of fire for two miles down the river but was dominated by hills on the far shore. Though many officers opposed the location, construction on the five-sided fort began with slaves and the 10th Tennessee Infantry providing the labor. By July 1861, guns were being mounted in the forts walls with eleven covering the river and six protecting the landward approaches. Named  for Tennessee Senator Gustavus Adolphus Henry Sr., Johnston had desired to give command of the forts to Brigadier General Alexander P. Stewart but was overruled by Confederate President Jefferson Davis who instead selected Maryland native Brigadier General Lloyd Tilghman in December.  Assuming his post, Tilghman saw Fort Henry reinforced with a smaller fortification, Fort Heiman, which was constructed on the opposite bank. In addition, efforts were made to place torpedoes (naval mines) in the shipping channel near the fort. Armies Commanders Union Brigadier General Ulysses S. GrantFlag Officer Andrew Foote15,000 men7 ships Confederate Brigadier General Lloyd Tilghman3,000-3,400 Grant and Foote Move As the Confederates worked to complete the forts, Union commanders in the west were under pressure from President Abraham Lincoln to take offensive action. While Brigadier General George H. Thomas defeated Zollicoffer at the Battle of Mills Springs in January 1862, Grant was able to secure permission for a thrust up the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. Advancing with around 15,000 men in two divisions led Brigadier Generals John McClernand and Charles F. Smith, Grant was supported by Flag Officer Andrew Footes Western Flotilla of four ironclads and three timberclads (wooden warships). A Swift Victory Pressing up the river, Grant and Foote elected to strike at Fort Henry first. Arriving in the vicinity on February 4, Union forces began going ashore with McClernands division landing north of Fort Henry while Smiths men landed on the western shore to neutralize Fort Heiman. As Grant moved forward, Tilghmans position had become tenuous due to the forts poor location. When the river was at normal levels, the forts walls stood around twenty feet high, but heavy rains had led water levels to rise dramatically flooding the fort. As a result, only nine of the forts seventeen guns were usable. Realizing that the fort could not be held, Tilghman ordered Colonel Adolphus Heiman to lead the bulk of the garrison to the east to Fort Donelson and abandoned Fort Heiman. By February 5, only a party of gunners and Tilghman remained. Approaching Fort Henry the next day, Footes gunboats advanced with the ironclads in the lead. Opening fire, they exchanged shots with the Confederates for around seventy-five minutes. In the fighting, only USS Essex suffered meaningful damage when a shot hit its boiler as the low trajectory of the Confederate fire played into the strength of the Union gunboats armor. Aftermath With the Union gunboats closing and his fire largely ineffective, Tilghman decided to surrender the fort. Due to the flooded nature of the fort, a boat from the fleet was able to row directly into the fort to take Tilghman to USS Cincinnati. A boost to Union morale, the capture of Fort Henry saw Grant capture 94 men. Confederate losses in the fighting numbered around 15 killed and 20 wounded. Union casualties totaled around 40, with the majority aboard USS Essex. The capture of the fort opened the Tennessee River to Union warships. Quickly taking advantage, Foote dispatched his three timberclads to raid upstream. Gathering his forces, Grant began moving his army the twelve miles to Fort Donelson on February 12. Over the next several days, Grant won the Battle of Fort Donelson and capturing over 12,000 Confederates. The twin defeats at Forts Henry and Donelson knocked a gaping hole in Johnstons defensive line and opened Tennessee to Union invasion. Large-scale fighting would resume in April when Johnston attacked Grant at the Battle of Shiloh.